This table shows what each digit or part of the IP (International protection) code represents.

IP indication Solid particle protection Liquid ingress protection
IP Single numeral: 0–6 Single numeral: 0–9


First digit: Solid particle protection

The first digit indicates the level of protection that the enclosure provides against access to hazardous parts (e.g., electrical conductors, moving parts) and the ingress of solid foreign objects

Level sized Effective against Description
0 No protection against contact and ingress of objects
1 >50 mm Any large surface of the body, such as the back of a hand, but no protection against deliberate contact with a body part
2 >12.5 mm Fingers or similar objects
3 >2.5 mm Tools, thick wires, etc.
4 >1 mm Most wires, slender screws, large ants etc.
5 Dust protected Ingress of dust is not entirely prevented, but it must not enter in sufficient quantity to interfere with the satisfactory operation of the equipment.
6 Dust tight No ingress of dust; complete protection against contact (dust tight). A vacuum must be applied. Test duration of up to 8 hours based on air flow.


Second digit: Liquid ingress protection

The second digit indicates the level of protection that the enclosure provides against harmful ingress of water.

Level Protection against Effective against
1 Dripping water Dripping water (vertically falling drops) shall have no harmful effect on the specimen when mounted in an upright position onto a turntable and rotated at 1 RPM.
2 Dripping water when tilted at 15° Vertically dripping water shall have no harmful effect when the enclosure is tilted at an angle of 15° from its normal position. A total of four positions are tested within two axes.
3 Spraying water Water falling as a spray at any angle up to 60° from the vertical shall have no harmful effect, utilizing either: a) an oscillating fixture, or b) A spray nozzle with a counterbalanced shield.

Test a) is conducted for 5 minutes, then repeated with the specimen rotated horizontally by 90° for the second 5-minute test. Test b) is conducted (with shield in place) for 5 minutes minimum.

4 Splashing of water Water splashing against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effect, utilizing either: a) an oscillating fixture, or b) A spray nozzle with no shield.

Test a) is conducted for 10 minutes. Test b) is conducted (without shield) for 5 minutes minimum.

5 Water jets Water projected by a nozzle (6.3 mm) against enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects.
6 Powerful water jets Water projected in powerful jets (12.5 mm nozzle) against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects.
7 Immersion, up to 1 m depth Ingress of water in harmful quantity shall not be possible when the enclosure is immersed in water under defined conditions of pressure and time (up to 1 m of submersion).
8 Immersion, 1 m or more depth The equipment is suitable for continuous immersion in water under conditions which shall be specified by the manufacturer. However, with certain types of equipment, it can mean that water can enter but only in such a manner that it produces no harmful effects. The test depth and/or duration is expected to be greater than the requirements for IPx7, and other environmental effects may be added, such as temperature cycling before immersion.
9 Powerful high temperature water jets Protected against close-range high pressure, high temperature spray downs.

Smaller specimens rotate slowly on a turntable, from 4 specific angles. Larger specimens are mounted upright, no turntable required, and are tested freehand for at least 3 minutes at distance of 0.15–0.2 m.

There are specific requirements for the nozzle used for the testing.

This test is identified as IPx9 in IEC 60529.

For more details: Wikipedia

Common PortsImage

The following is a list of common ports. During a network security audit, port scans will be performed to determine what network services are available. These services can be on different Operating systems.

More references can be found here :

Ports Protocols
1 tcpmux
5 rje
7 echo
9 discard
11 systat
13 daytime
15 netstat
17 qotd
18 send/rwp
19 chargen
20 ftp-data
21 ftp
22 ssh / pcAnywhere
23 Telnet
29 msg-icp
31 msg-auth
33 dsp
37 time
38 RAP
39 rlp
42 nameserv / WINS
43 whois / nickname
49 TACACS / Login Host Protocol
50 RMCP / re-mail-ck
53 DNS
57 MTP
63 whois++
66 sql*net
67 bootps
68 bootpd/dhcp
69 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (tftp)
70 Gopher
79 finger
80 www-http
88 Kerberos / WWW
95 supdup
98 linuxconf
102 ISO / X.400 / ITOT
105 cso
106 poppassd
109 POP2
110 POP3
111 Sun RPC Portmapper
113 identd/auth
115 sftp
117 uucp
119 NNTP
120 CFDP
123 NTP
124 SecureID
133 statsrv
135 loc-srv/epmap
137 netbios-ns
138 netbios-dgm (UDP)
139 NetBIOS
143 IMAP
144 NewS
152 BFTP
153 SGMP
161 SNMP
175 vmnet
178 NextStep Window Server
179 BGP
180 SLmail admin
199 smux
210 Z39.50
218 MPP
220 IMAP3
259 ESRO
264 FW1_topo
311 Apple WebAdmin
350 MATIP type A
351 MATIP type B
363 RSVP tunnel
366 ODMR (On-Demand Mail Relay)
387 AURP (AppleTalk Update-Based Routing Protocol)
389 LDAP
407 Timbuktu
434 Mobile IP
444 snpp / Simple Network Paging Protocol
445 SMB (Windows Share)
458 QuickTime TV/Conferencing
468 Photuris
500 ISAKMP / pluto
512 biff / rexec
513 who / rlogin
514 syslog / rsh
515 lp / lpr / line printer
517 talk
520 RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
521 RIPng
522 ULS
531 IRC
543 KLogin / AppleShare over IP
545 QuickTime
548 AFP
554 Real Time Streaming Protocol
555 phAse Zero
563 NNTP over SSL
581 Bundle Discovery Protocol
593 MS-RPC
626 Apple ASIA
631 IPP (Internet Printing Protocol)
635 mountd
636 sldap
642 EMSD
648 RRP (NSI Registry Registrar Protocol)
655 tinc
660 Apple MacOS Server Admin
666 Doom
674 ACAP
687 AppleShare IP Registry
700 buddyphone
705 AgentX for SNMP
901 swat / realsecure
993 s-imap
995 s-pop
1062 Veracity
1080 SOCKS
1085 WebObjects
1227 DNS2Go
1243 SubSeven
1338 Millennium Worm
1352 Lotus Notes
1381 Apple Network License Manager
1417 Timbuktu
1418 Timbuktu
1419 Timbuktu
1433 Microsoft SQL Server
1434 Microsoft SQL Monitor
1494 Citrix ICA / MS Terminal Server
1503 T.120
1521 Oracle SQL
1525 prospero
1526 prospero
1527 tlisrv
1604 Citrix ICA / MS Terminal Server
1645 RADIUS Authentication
1646 RADIUS Accounting
1680 Carbon Copy
1701 L2TP/LSF
1717 Convoy
1720 H.323/Q.931
1723 PPTP control port
1755 Windows Media .asf
1758 TFTP multicast
1812 RADIUS server
1813 RADIUS accounting
1818 ETFTP
1985 HSRP
1999 Cisco AUTH
2001 glimpse
2049 NFS
2065 DLSw
2066 DLSw
2106 MZAP
2140 DeepThroat
2301 Compaq Insight Management Web Agents
2327 Netscape Conference
2336 Apple UG Control
2427 MGCP gateway
2504 WLBS
2543 sip
2592 netrek
2628 DICT
2727 MGCP call agent
2998 ISS Real Secure Console Service Port
3000 Firstclass
3031 Apple AgentVU
3128 squid
3130 ICP
3150 DeepThroat
3264 ccmail
3283 Apple NetAssitant
3288 COPS
3306 mySQL
3389 NT Terminal Server
3521 netrek
4000 icq / command-n-conquer
4321 rwhois
4333 mSQL
4827 HTCP
5004 RTP
5005 RTP
5010 Yahoo! Messenger
5060 SIP
5190 AIM
5423 Apple VirtualUser
5500 securid
5501 securidprop
5631 PCAnywhere data
5632 PCAnywhere
5800 VNC
5801 VNC
5900 VNC
5901 VNC
6000 X Windows
6112 BattleNet
6502 Netscape Conference
6667 IRC
6670 VocalTec Internet Phone / DeepThroat
6699 napster
6776 Sub7
6970 RTP
7007 MSBD / Windows Media encoder
7070 RealServer/QuickTime
7648 CU-SeeMe
7649 CU-SeeMe
7778 Unreal
8010 WinGate 2.1
8080 HTTP
8181 HTTP
8383 IMail WWW
8875 napster
8888 napster
10008 cheese worm
11371 PGP 5 Keyserver
13223 PowWow
13224 PowWow
14237 Palm
14238 Palm
18888 LiquidAudio
21157 Activision
23213 PowWow
23214 PowWow
23456 EvilFTP
26000 Quake
27001 QuakeWorld
27010 Half-Life
27015 Half-Life
27960 QuakeIII
30029 AOL Admin
31337 Back Orifice
32773 rpc.ttdbserverd
32777 rpc.walld
40193 Novell
41524 arcserve discovery
45000 Cisco NetRanger postofficed
ICMP Type hidden
Multicast hidden
RFC 1893 - SMTP Extended Error MessagesImage

   For more detail about the RFC1893 :

   The class sub-code provides a broad classification of the status.
   The enumerated values the class are defined as:

    2.X.X   Success

       Success specifies that the DSN is reporting a positive delivery
       action.  Detail sub-codes may provide notification of
       transformations required for delivery.

    4.X.X   Persistent Transient Failure

       A persistent transient failure is one in which the message as
       sent is valid, but some temporary event prevents the successful
       sending of the message.  Sending in the future may be successful.

    5.X.X   Permanent Failure

       A permanent failure is one which is not likely to be resolved by
       resending the message in the current form.  Some change to the
       message or the destination must be made for successful delivery.

       X.0.X   Other or Undefined Status

          There is no additional subject information available.

       X.1.X   Addressing Status

          The address status reports on the originator or destination
          address.  It may include address syntax or validity.  These
          errors can generally be corrected by the sender and retried.

       X.2.X   Mailbox Status

          Mailbox status indicates that something having to do with the
          mailbox has cause this DSN.  Mailbox issues are assumed to be
          under the general control of the recipient.

       X.3.X   Mail System Status

          Mail system status indicates that something having to do
          with the destination system has caused this DSN.  System
          issues are assumed to be under the general control of the
          destination system administrator.

       X.4.X   Network and Routing Status

          The networking or routing codes report status about the
          delivery system itself.  These system components include any
          necessary infrastructure such as directory and routing
          services.  Network issues are assumed to be under the
          control of the destination or intermediate system

       X.5.X   Mail Delivery Protocol Status

          The mail delivery protocol status codes report failures
          involving the message delivery protocol.  These failures
          include the full range of problems resulting from
          implementation errors or an unreliable connection.  Mail
          delivery protocol issues may be controlled by many parties
          including the originating system, destination system, or
          intermediate system administrators.

       X.6.X   Message Content or Media Status

          The message content or media status codes report failures
          involving the content of the message.  These codes report
          failures due to translation, transcoding, or otherwise
          unsupported message media.  Message content or media issues
          are under the control of both the sender and the receiver,
          both of whom must support a common set of supported

       X.7.X   Security or Policy Status

          The security or policy status codes report failures
          involving policies such as per-recipient or per-host
          filtering and cryptographic operations.  Security and policy
          status issues are assumed to be under the control of either
          or both the sender and recipient.  Both the sender and
          recipient must permit the exchange of messages and arrange
          the exchange of necessary keys and certificates for
          cryptographic operations.

       X.0.0     Other undefined Status

          Other undefined status is the only undefined error code. It
          should be used for all errors for which only the class of the
          error is known.

       X.1.0     Other address status
       X.1.1     Bad destination mailbox address
       X.1.2     Bad destination system address
       X.1.3     Bad destination mailbox address syntax
       X.1.4     Destination mailbox address ambiguous
       X.1.5     Destination mailbox address valid
       X.1.6     Mailbox has moved
       X.1.7     Bad sender's mailbox address syntax
       X.1.8     Bad sender's system address

       X.2.0     Other or undefined mailbox status
       X.2.1     Mailbox disabled, not accepting messages
       X.2.2     Mailbox full
       X.2.3     Message length exceeds administrative limit.
       X.2.4     Mailing list expansion problem

       X.3.0     Other or undefined mail system status
       X.3.1     Mail system full
       X.3.2     System not accepting network messages
       X.3.3     System not capable of selected features
       X.3.4     Message too big for system

       X.4.0     Other or undefined network or routing status
       X.4.1     No answer from host
       X.4.2     Bad connection
       X.4.3     Routing server failure
       X.4.4     Unable to route
       X.4.5     Network congestion
       X.4.6     Routing loop detected
       X.4.7     Delivery time expired

       X.5.0     Other or undefined protocol status
       X.5.1     Invalid command
       X.5.2     Syntax error
       X.5.3     Too many recipients
       X.5.4     Invalid command arguments
       X.5.5     Wrong protocol version

       X.6.0     Other or undefined media error
       X.6.1     Media not supported
       X.6.2     Conversion required and prohibited
       X.6.3     Conversion required but not supported
       X.6.4     Conversion with loss performed
       X.6.5     Conversion failed

       X.7.0     Other or undefined security status
       X.7.1     Delivery not authorized, message refused
       X.7.2     Mailing list expansion prohibited
       X.7.3     Security conversion required but not possible
       X.7.4     Security features not supported
       X.7.5     Cryptographic failure
       X.7.6     Cryptographic algorithm not supported
       X.7.7     Message integrity failure


For more detail about the RFC788 :

=> List of reply codes returned by destination server when source server is sending a command during SMTP session.

211   System status, or system help reply
214   Help message  [Information on how to use the receiver or the meaning of a particular non-standard command; this reply is useful only to the human user]
220   Service ready
221   Service closing transmission channel
250   Requested mail action okay, completed
251   User not local; will forward to

354   Start mail input; end with .

421   Service not available, closing transmission channel [This may be a reply to any command if the service knows it must shut down]
450   Requested mail action not taken: mailbox unavailable [E.g., mailbox busy]
451   Requested action aborted: local error in processing
452   Requested action not taken: insufficient system storage

500   Syntax error, command unrecognized [This may include errors such as command line too long]
501   Syntax error in parameters or arguments
502   Command not implemented
503   Bad sequence of commands
504   Command parameter not implemented
550   Requested action not taken: mailbox unavailable [E.g., mailbox not found, no access]
551   User not local; please try
552   Requested mail action aborted: exceeded storage allocation
553   Requested action not taken: mailbox name not allowed [E.g., mailbox syntax incorrect]
554   Transaction failed

List of images that can be used in a Lotus Notes Column Views.
Do not forget to set the parameter to [x] display the value as image in the Column properties.

Lotus Images
Lotus Images

Code sample:

@If(MyText=""; 80; MyText="Yes"; 82; MyText="No"; 81; 71);


Image[:ask] According to default installation of Windows, the default keyboard layout (generally US - QWERTY) is used on login authenticaton screen. So how to change the default keyboard layout to my layout like french AZERTY or Swiss QWERTZ keyboard layout under Windows 2000 or XP.

[:idea] You need to change the keyboard layout of the default account to match the layout you do use.


This is correct to say that once you login to a system you can set what keyboard to use, but at logon time, the default selected keyboard is the same as the default keyboard layout that was chosen during the setup of Windows 2000/XP (in your case English–US).

For Windows 2000 there isn't any system settings you can change to add more keyboards for the logon dialog, but there is a workaround for those who have administrator rights to the computer. Here it is:

  • First add the keyboard layout you wanted to the your current user (open "Settings=>Control Panel=>Regional Options" and add a keyboard layout)
  • Open "regedit" in HKCU\Keyboard Layout\Preload
  • Look for the key you added
  • Create the same key value in HKU\.DEFAULT\Keyboard Layout\Preload
  • You will also need to replicate, the "Substitutes" folder.

Once you have set this up, you can select a different input locale in the logon dialog by:

1.Press the "Options >>" button. This will allow you to see the input locale in a blue rectangle.
2. Use <Right Alt>+<Shift> to toggle between the different installed input locales.

Now the good news is that Windows XP will make all this much simpler. The way you are able to do this is the following:

  • Open the "Regional and Language Options" in the Control Panel and go to the "Language" tag
  • Click the "Details" button and add all the keyboards you want to use in the logon window.
  • Go to the "Advanced Options" tag in the regional and language option.
  • Check the check box under "Default user account settings" (The system then applies all the settings of the current user account to the default user profile.)

Now when you go to the logon dialog do the same as mentioned above with the <Right Alt>+<Shift> key combination to toggle through the available keyboards.